Pronouns and Tenses

Pronoun is a word or form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. It is a particular case of a pro-form.

 

Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech, although many modern theorists would not regard them as a single distinct word class, because of the variety of functions performed by words which are classed as pronouns. Common types include the Personal Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns, Demonstrative Pronouns,Indefinite Pronouns, Relative Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns, Reflexive Pronouns, Intensive Pronouns, Reciprocal Pronouns.

 

Common types of pronouns found in the world’s languages are as follows:

 

1. Personal pronouns denote an entity of a specific grammatical person: first person (as in the case of I, me, we, etc.), second person (as in the case of you), or third person (he, she, they, etc.)

•Subject pronouns are used when the person or thing is the subject of the sentence or clause.

Example: I like watching tv, but he doesn’t.

•Object pronouns are used when the person or thing is the object of the sentence or clause.

Example: I make this cake for them.

2. Possessive pronouns are used to indicate possession or ownership.

•In a strict sense, the possessive pronouns are only those that act syntactically as nouns.

Example: This book is mine.

•Often, though, the term “possessive pronoun” is also applied to the so-called possessive determiners (or possessive adjectives).

Example: I lost my wallet. 

3. Demonstrative pronouns distinguish the particular objects or people that are referred to from other possible candidates.

Example: I’ll take these.

4. Indefinite pronouns refer to general categories of people or things.

Example: Anyone can do that.

•Distributive pronouns are used to refer to members of a group separately rather than collectively.

Example: To each his own.

•Negative pronouns indicate the non-existence of people or things.

Example: Nobody thinks that.

5. Relative pronouns refer back to people or things previously mentioned. 

Example: People who smoke should quit now.

•Indefinite relative pronouns have some of the properties of both relative pronouns and indefinite pronouns. They have a sense of “referring back”, but the person or thing to which they refer has not previously been explicitly named.

Example: I know what I like.

6. Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant.

Example:

Who did that?

Who is that? (interrogative) to I know who that is. (relative)

7. Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns’s word :

I = myself

You = yourself (kamu)

You = yourselves (kalian)

We = ourselves

They = themselves

He = himself

She = herself

It = itself

Example : I love my self

8. Intensive Pronouns

Intensive pronouns is look like Reflexive pronouns, but the word use after the nouns

Example : Mark himself who told me that he will go to Korea

9. Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal Nouns:

* Each other

* One another

Example: We always help each other

 

 

TENSES

 

The concept of time can be split into:

1. The Present – What you are currently doing.   

I eat, I am eating                                  

 

2. The Past – What you did some time back.  

I ate, I was eating

 

3. The Future – What you will do later.  

I will eat, I will be eating                                             

 

In the English language, tenses play an important role in sentence formation. 

The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action.

 

There are four types of tenses. Simple, Perfect, Continuous and Present Perfect Continuous and each of these has a present, past and future form. 

 

PRESENT TENSES

1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

In Simple Present, the action is simply mentioned and there is nothing being said about its completeness.

I eat.

I sleep.

I play.

2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Present Continuous, the action is on-going/ still going on and hence continuous.

I am eating.

I am sleeping.

I am playing.

3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

In Present Perfect, the action is complete or has ended and hence termed Perfect.

I have eaten.

I have slept.

I have played.

4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Present Perfect Continuous, the action has been taking place for some time and is still ongoing.

I have been eating.

I have been sleeping.

I have been playing.

 

PAST TENSES

1. SIMPLE PAST TENSE

In Simple Past, the action is simply mentioned and understood to have taken place in the past.

I ate.

I slept. 

I played.

2. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

In Past Continuous, the action was ongoing till a certain time in the past.

I was eating.

I was sleeping. 

I was playing.

3. PAST PERFECT TENSE

Past Perfect is used to express something that happened before another action in the past.

I had eaten. 

I had slept. 

I had played.

4. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Past Perfect Continuous is used to express something that started in the past and continued until another time in the past.

I had been eating. 

I had been sleeping. 

I had been playing.

 

FUTURE TENSES

1. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE

Simple Future is used when we plan or make a decision to do something. Nothing is said about the time in the future.

I will eat.

I will sleep.

I will play.

2. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

The future continuous tense is used to express action at a particular moment in the future. However, the action will not have finished at the moment.

I will be eating at 9 a.m.

I will be sleeping when you arrive.

I will be playing at 5 p.m.

 

3. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

Future Perfect expresses action that will occur in the future before another action in the future.

I will have eaten before 10 a.m.

I will have slept before you arrive.

I will have played before 6 p.m.

4. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Future Perfect Continuous is used to talk about an on-going action before some point in the future.

I will have been sleeping for two hours when you arrive.

I will have been playing for an hour when it is 5 p.m

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